The laws of thermodynamics are fundamental laws of nature that classify energy changes for macroscopic systems as work performed by external driving and heat exchanged with the environment. In the past decades, these principles have been successfully extended to the level of classical trajectories of microscopic systems to account for thermal fluctuations. In particular, experimentally tested generalizations of the second law, known as fluctuation theorems, quantify the occurrence of negative entropy production. The extension of thermodynamics to include quantum fluctuations faces unique challenges such as the proper identification of heat and work and clarification of the role of quantum coherence. I will present experiments that allow us to track heat and work along single quantum trajectories of a superconducting qubit evolving under continuous unitary evolution and measurement. We are able to verify the first law of thermodynamics in that the measured heat and work sum to the total energy change of the quantum system. We then verify the second law of thermodynamics in the form of the Jarzynski equality by employing a novel quantum feedback loop that cancels the heat exchanged at each point in time with additional work. Our results successfully generalize stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum regime, paving the way for future experimental and theoretical investigations of quantum information and thermodynamics.
Geometrical effects influencing the measured spin coherence and quantum phase coherence in mesoscopic structures were characterized by low-temperature spin-dependent quantum transport experiments. The findings are of possible relevance for the design of devices for quantum technologies, and have foundational aspects as well. The materials studied have strong spin-orbit interaction and are heterostructures of InSb, InAs, or InGaAs, and the semimetal Bi with its surface states. The materials were patterned into mesoscopic stadia, narrow channels or quantum interferometers, of typical size ~ 1 micron, comparable to the spin and quantum phase coherence lengths. Aharonov-Bohm experiments, antilocalization, and universal conductance fluctuations were used to quantify the spin- and quantum phase coherence lengths. Using geometrical constraints on the accumulation of quantum geometric phases, the work shows a correspondence, in a diffusive transport regime, between mesoscopic dephasing effects due to time-reversal symmetry breaking by magnetic fields, and spin decoherence due to spin-orbit interaction (Aharonov-Bohm / Aharonov-Casher correspondence). The work also reveals device-geometrical influences on quantum phase coherence from coupling to the classical environment and geometrical effects of electron-electron interactions.
Christopher White, Caltech IQIM
I will describe a method "DMT" for approximating density operators of 1D systems as low bond dimension matrix product operators that, when combined with a standard framework for time evolution (TEBD), makes possible simulation of the dynamics of strongly thermalizing systems to arbitrary times. The method performs well for both near-equilibrium initial states (Gibbs states with spatially varying temperatures) and far-from-equilibrium initial states, including quenches across phase transitions and pure states. I will also discuss ongoing work applying the method to the diffusive-subdiffusive transition in the ergodic phase of the random-field Heisenberg model.
Strontium titanate is a bulk insulator that becomes superconducting at remarkably low carrier densities. Even more enigmatic properties become apparent at the strontium titanate/lanthanum aluminate (STO/LAO) interface and it is important to disentangle the effects of reduced dimensionality from the poorly-understood pairing mechanism. Recent experiments measuring the surface photoemission spectrum and bulk tunneling spectrum have found a cross-over, as a function of carrier density, from a polaronic regime with substantial spectral weight associated with strongly coupled phonons, to a more conventional weakly coupled Fermi liquid. Interestingly, it is only the polaronic state that becomes superconducting at low temperatures, although the properties of the superconducting phase itself appear entirely conventional. We interpret these results in a simple analytical model that extends an Engelsberg-Schrieffer theory of electrons coupled to a single longitudinal optic phonon mode to include the response of the electron liquid, and in particular phonon-plasmon hybridization. We perform a Migdal-Eliashberg calculation within our model to obtain this material's unusual superconducting phase diagram.
 Z. Wang et al, Nat. Mater. (2016)
 A.G. Swartz et al, arXiv:1608.05621
In this talk, I am going to present some of the work that I have done during my PhD. In the first part I will mostly focus on building a low-temperature Andreev reflection spectroscopy probe (which is basically a simpler version of an STM). In the second part, I will briefly talk about the observation of a new phase of matter, tip-induced superconductivity (TISC), that emerges only under mesoscopic metallic point contacts on topologically non-trivial semimetals like a 3-D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, and a Weyl semimetal, TaAs and comment on the possible mechanism that might lead to the emergence of such a surprising phase of matter. All these experiments were done using our home-built low-temperature probe.
If time permits, I will also talk about some experiments that we did using various scanning probe based microscopic techniques, e.g., piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) and ferroelectric lithography. I will show how certain “artifacts” can limit the application of PFM in the investigation of ferroelectric materials, and how, under certain circumstances, such “artifacts” can actually turn out to be useful.
 L. Aggarwal, A. Gaurav, G. S. Thakur, Z. Haque, A. K. Ganguli & G. Sheet, Unconventional Superconductivity at Mesoscopic Point-contacts on the 3-Dimensional Dirac Semi-metal Cd3As2.” Nature Materials 15, 32 (2016).
 L. Aggarwal, S. Gayen, S. Das, R. Kumar, V. Sϋß, C. Shekhar, C. Felser & G. Sheet, “Mesoscopic superconductivity and high spin-polarization coexisting at metallic point contacts on Weyl semimetal TaAs.” Nature Communications, 8, 13974 (2017).
 J. S. Sekhon, L. Aggarwal & G. Sheet, “Voltage induced local hysteretic phase switching in silicon.” Applied Physics Letters 104, 162908 (2014).
The two-dimensional diffusive metal stabilized at the interface of SrTiO3 and the Mott Insulator perovskite LaTiO3[1-2] has challenged many notions related to the formation and electronic behavior of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the well studies LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. Here we discuss specifically the stability of the superconducting phase at LaTiO3 – SrTiO3 interface, the nature of the superconductor – normal metal quantum phase transition (T=0 limit) driven by magnetic field, significance of the field vis-à-vis the Chandrasekhar - Clogston limit for depairing, and how the transition is initiated when the extent of Coulomb interaction amongst charge carriers is modulated by electrostatic gating. The nature of the superconducting condensate is highlighted in the light of the Ti - t2g orbital driven bands and their filling in the presence of a strong Rashba spin – orbit interaction (SOI). Towards the end of the talk, we will discuss the prominent effects of Rashba SOI on normal state quantum transport and how it renormalizes a Kondo-like electronic behavior in range of temperature Tc< T < 5K[5-7]. The prominence of the Ti 3d0 and Ti 3d1 correlated electron physics in these systems will be demonstrated further from our recent studies of 2DEG in ion irradiated SrTiO3 crystals[8,9].
1. Advanced Materials 22, 4448(2010). 2. Phys. Rev. B 86, 075127(2012).
3. Nature Communications, 1, 89(2010). 4. Nature Materials 12, 542(2013).
5. Phys. Rev. B (Rapid Communication) 90, 081107(2014). 6. Phys. Rev. B 90, 075133(2014). 7. Phys. Rev. B 94, 115165 (2016).
8. Phys. Rev. B 91, 205117(2015). 9. Phys. Rev. B 92, 235115 (2015).
Advancements in nanoscale engineering of oxide interfaces and heterostructures have led to discoveries of emergent phenomena and new artificial materials. Combining the strengths of reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and pulsed-laser deposition, we show that atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular-beam epitaxy (ALL-Laser MBE) significantly advances the state of the art in constructing oxide materials with atomic layer precision. Using Sr1+xTi1-xO3 as example, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique in producing oxide films with stoichiometric and crystalline perfection. With the growth of La5Ni4O13, a Ruddlesden-Popper phase with n = 4 that has never been reported in the literature, we demonstrate that ALL-Laser MBE allows us to push the equilibrium thermodynamic boundary further. By growing LaAl1+yO3 films of different stoichiometry on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 substrate at high oxygen pressure, we show that the behavior of the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3interface can be quantitatively explained by the electronic reconstruction mechanism. In LaNiO3 films on LaAlO3 substrate with LaAlO3 buffer layer, we observed the metal insulator transition in 1.5 unit cells, which is driven by oxygen vacancies in addition to epitaxial strain and reduced dimensionality.
As Interim Chair of Temple University’s Physics Department, May 20, 2015 was a normal day for me filled with work on my class, research, promotion of colleagues, and a university task force I was chairing. I had given a public lecture for “Pint of Science,” a science festival, at an Irish pub before picking up my wife at the airport, who was returning from an overseas conference trip. My elder daughter had come home a day earlier from college for a few days. We made a plan to visit a restaurant to try their famous Korean fried chicken. All of this was suddenly and forever changed a few hours later when I was awoken by the urgent pounding on my door. I was arrested by armed FBI agents and indicted by the U.S. government for sharing protected U.S. company technology with China. The indictment was dismissed in September after it had become clear that I did not share the protected technology with China. My case has raised serious concerns about international collaborations in science and technology, civil rights, and the long-term national security and economic future of the United States.
The Kagome Lattice Heisenberg Model is one of the simplest realistic spin models with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. We discuss the current status of our understanding of this well-studied model. The precise nature of the spin-liquid state and the existence of a spin-gap in the model still remain in dispute. We also discuss experimental studies of Herbertsmithite material Kagome-antiferromagnet ZnCu_3(OH)_6Cl_2. We focus on NMR measurements by Imai and collaborators, who have presented strong evidence for a spin-gap in the excitation spectra. Through a Numerical Linked Cluster (NLC) calculation of the frequency moments, we show that despite the existence of substitutional disorder in these materials, the high temperature nuclear relaxation rates are well described by the Heisenberg model.
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics to Kosterlitz, Thouless and Haldane honors a new set of ideas and theoretical formalism that has gradually become the mainstay of modern condensed matter thinking. Quantum Field Theory, Topology and the Renormalization Group, lie at the heart of present day theory of condensed matter. The Kosterlitz-Thouless theory of phase transitions and Haldane's conjecture on the spin dependence of spectrum of spin-chains were two of the most influential works in bringing these ideas together. These along with the Thouless-Kohmoto-Nightingale-Den Nijs-(TKNN) work on topological invariants of band structures were duly recognized by the Nobel committee. This talk will discuss how these theories defied existing paradigms and no-go theorems. And, how they continue to play a huge role in how we address quantum phases and phase transitions today. This Nobel Prize potentially sets the stage for many more prizes in the field of Topological Matter.