Professor Norton studies the history and philosophy of physics (relativity, quantum theory, and statistical physics), with a special interest in general relativity, and has published extensively on the detailed steps of Einstein's discovery of general and special relativity and also on many aspects of the theory's philosophical foundations. He was a contributing editor to the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, volumes 3 and 4, and was recently associate editor and coeditor of Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. He also works in general philosophy of science, with emphasis on different approaches to confirmation theory, inconsistency in theories, and thought experiments. He is editor for philosophy of physics (space and time, general physics) for the Stanford On-line Encyclopedia of Philosophy, for which he wrote the article on The Hole Argument. In 2001, Norton was one of the founders of philsci-archive.pitt.edu. He has written recently on the "material theory of induction" and defended the power of induction from the underdetermination thesis and grue. He has also mounted a non-Humean critique of causation.
- "Chasing the Light: Einstein's Most Famous Thought Experiment," John D Norton, prepared for Thought Experiments in Philosophy, Science and the Arts, eds., James Robert Brown, Mélanie Frappier and Letitia Meynell, Routledge.
- "Approximation and Idealization: Why the Difference Matters," John D Norton, Philosophy of Science 79, 207 (2012)
- "Waiting for Landauer," John D Norton, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42, 184 (2011)
- "Challenges to Bayesian Confirmation Theory," John D Norton, Philosophy of Statistics, Vol. 7: Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay and Malcolm R. Forster (eds.) Elsevier (2011)
- "Little boxes: A simple implementation of the Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger result for spatial degrees of freedom," John D Norton, American Journal of Physics 79, 182 (2011)
- "Weeding Landauer's Garden," JD Norton. (2019)
- "Einstein's Conflicting Heuristics: The Discovery of General Relativity," JD Norton. (2018)
- "Eternal Inflation: When Probabilities Fail," JD Norton. Synthese (2018)
- "Erratum to: How to build an infinite lottery machine." Norton, J.D. European Journal for Philosophy of Sciences 8(1) pp/ 97(2018).
- "Maxwell's Demon Does Not Compute," JD Norton. (2017)