Paul Leu and Kevin Chen Awarded NSF Grant to Develop Improved Solar Cell Manufacturing
One of the grand challenges of the 21st century, as identified by the National Academy of Engineering, is to make solar energy economical. Solar power is an attractive energy resource because it is renewable and abundant. It is also relatively free of problems associated with fossil fuels or nuclear energy, such as increasing fuel costs, waste disposal, heat dissipation, safety concerns, and the release of greenhouse gases.
PQI faculty Paul W. Leu and Kevin P. Chen were awarded a $107,498 Early-concept Grants for Exploratory Research (EAGER grant) to develop a new process for the scalable laser manufacturing of more efficient solar cells.
"We're exploring new structures, called photonic crystals, that are at the wavelength scale or smaller to better trap light within the absorbing region of the solar cell," Dr. Leu explains. "As demonstrated in nature with the colors you see in the morpho butterfly wing or peacock feather, these structures can control how light is reflected and absorbed. We're developing new laser technologies to scalably manufacture these 3D nanostructures into low-cost and efficient solar cells."
The investigators will combine both simulations and experiments to explore the feasibility of using 3D silicon photonic crystals in solar cells. A new manufacturing process will be developed where the interference patterns between multiple laser beams will be used to fabricate complicated 3D nanometer length-scale structures. "The challenge is to quickly and easily manufacture these tiny structures over large length-scales," Dr. Leu explained. "These structures are so small that a solar cell will have about a trillion (1012 ) of them."
These research efforts will demonstrate the proof-of-concept for a 3D photonic crystal solar cell structure that exhibits enhanced efficiencies and that can be manufactured at production scale and low cost. This research will provide new understanding of how light interacts with different materials and develop new scalable processes for manufacturing nanostructures. Ultimately, the researchers hope this work will help bring solar cells to more residential houses, solar farms, and small villages around the world.
Read the original article here.